CALATRAVA

CALATRAVA, Spanish order of knights, founded to protect the frontier areas and as a means of prosecuting the war with the Muslims. The Order was founded in 1158 when Sancho III granted it the village and fortress of Calatrava, after which it was named. Judah Ibn Ezra had previously held authority here as supervisor and military purveyor for the armies of Castile in the wars against the Muslims. Numerous settlements were established on the lands of the Order in Castile and Aragon, in which Jews took up permanent residence. They were granted privileges by the Order, which had the right of jurisdiction over them. Among such settlements were alcaniz in Aragon, where 30 families were living in the 14th century under the protection of the Order, Almaden, almagro , Chillón , and maqueda . When anti-Jewish disorders and restrictions increased in the 15th century, the Order took an independent line in its attitude toward the Jews, maintaining normal relations with Jewish scholars, moneylenders, and tax farmers. In 1422 the grandmaster Don Luis de Guzmán initiated the project for a Spanish translation of the Bible, which he delegated to moses arragel . A unique event in the depressed state of the Jewish communities of Castile in this period was the erection of a synagogue in Almagro, the seat of the Order, in the 1460s. In the following decade, when the Conversos in Castile again suffered from persecutions, many found refuge on the lands of the Order. The dossiers of the Inquisition relating to persons living on the lands of the Order indicate the existence of groups of Conversos in many places where there were formerly Jewish congregations. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: Baer, Spain, 1 (1961), 77, 80, 421; H. Beinart, Anusim be-Din ha-Inkviziẓyah (1965), index; S. Montero Díaz et al., La Orden de Calatrava (1959); Queirós Linares, in: Revista de la Universidad de Madrid, 52 (1964), 635–6; D.W. Lomax, La Orden de Santiago (1965), index. (Haim Beinart)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

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  • Calatrava — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Calatrava puede referirse a: Calatrava La Vieja, ciudad de fundación árabe que dio nombre al Campo y a la orden de Calatrava. (Carrión de Calatrava. provincia de Ciudad Real. España). Calatrava La Nueva, fortaleza de …   Wikipedia Español

  • Calatrava — steht für die Orte: Calatrava la Vieja, eine von Arabern gegründete Stadt in der Provinz Ciudad Real in Spanien, die später dem Orden von Calatrava seinen Namen gab. Calatrava la Nueva, eine Festung und Sitz des Meisters des Ordens von Calatrava… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Calatrava — (una de las *órdenes militares españolas) V. «cruz de Calatrava». * * * Calatrava. □ V. cruz de Calatrava. * * * La antigua ciudad de Calatrava estaba en las cercanías de Ciudad Real (España), a unos 20 km al norte, en un pueblo que ahora se… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Calatrava — can refer to:* Calatrava la Vieja (originally Calatrava), Spanish medieval town, after which the Order of Calatrava, a Spanish military religious order, takes its name.* Calatrava la Nueva, Spanish medieval castle and convent. Philippines *… …   Wikipedia

  • Calatrāva [1] — Calatrāva, Stadt am Guadiana in der spanischen Provinz Ciudad Real; Getreide, Wein, Viehzucht, Quecksilberbergwerk. Hier wurde 1158 der Calatrava Orden gestiftet …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Calatrava — ☛ V. cruz de Calatrava …   Diccionario de la lengua española

  • Calatrāva [2] — Calatrāva, Don Jose Maria, geb. 1781 zu Merida in Estremadura, wurde 1808 Mitglied der durch[563] das Volk niedergesetzten Junta von Estremadura u. 1810 Deputirter bei den, auf Isla de Leon sich versammelnden allgemeinen Cortes; 1814 ward er… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Calatrāva — Calatrāva, ehemaliges festes Schloß in der span. Provinz Ciudad Real, Stiftungsort des Calatravaordens (s.d.), jetzt fast ganz verschwunden. Der Name ist in dem fruchtbaren Distrikt des Campo de C. am Fluß Jabalon (mit erloschenen Vulkanen und… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Calatrava [1] — Calatrava, Don Jose, geb. 1781 zu Madrid. Advocat. Mitglied der Cortes von 1808–14, dann Deportirter in Ceuta bis 1820, von 1820–23 Gegner des Ministeriums Martinez de la Rosa, 1823 Justizminister und bald von Cadiz. nach England flüchtig, 1830… …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon

  • Calatrava [2] — Calatrava, span. Stadt an der Gränze von Andalusien und Castilien; von ihr nennen sich die Ritter von C., ein Orden, der 1158 vom Abte Raimund nach der Regel der Cisterzienser gestiftet wurde und die Stadt gegen die Mauren vertheidigte. 1163… …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon

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